Information and Resources on Gender Equality and Gender Research in Norway

National Legislation
The Gender Equality Act
The Act relating to Gender Equality (the Gender Equality Act) was adopted by the parliament in 1978. The Act shall promote gender equality and aims in particular at improving the position of women. Women and men shall be given equal opportunities in education, employment and cultural and professional advancement. The law is based on the principle of non-discrimination, which is the cornerstone and basis for promoting gender equality. The Act was revised in 2013, but has not been translated to English.
The Sexual Orientation Anti-Discrimination Act
The Act relating to a prohibition against discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation, gender identity and gender expression (the Sexual Orientation Anti-Discrimination Act) entered into force on 1 January 2014. It applies to all areas of society apart from family life and the private sphere.
Origin date: 2013
Act on an introductory programme and Norwegian language instruction for newly arrived immigrants (The Introduction Act)
An individually adapted introductory programme for newly arrived immigrants provides basic skills in Norwegian and gives insight into Norwegian society. According to the preparatory notes to this law, it shall aim at providing the necessary conditions that will enable women to take part in work life. Economic support is provided on an individual basis, and this measure also stresses the importance of women’s economic independence. Completion of the programme may in the long run affect an application for citizenship.
Origin date: 2005
Guidelines for processing of applications for a residence permit on an independent basis following the death of a sponsor or the breakdown of marriage or cohabitation
This circular provides guidelines on the processing of applications for residence permits on an independent basis pursuant to the Immigration Act section 53.
Origin date: 2012
Gender Equality in Education
Gender equality features as an integral part of the Act on Education, within the general part of the curriculum, as well as within/ the different aspects of the education curricula.
Origin date: 2013
The right to education
All girls and boys have an equal right to education, regardless of social and cultural background, or special needs. Compulsory education lasts until the pupil has completed the tenth year of schooling. Young people who have completed the primary and lower secondary school or equivalent tuition have, on application, the right to three years' full-time upper secondary education.
Origin date: 2000
Act relating to universities and university colleges – regarding appointments and boards of appointment
The advertising and the filling of teaching and research positions are regulated by section 6-3: "If one sex is clearly under-represented in the category of post in the subject area in question, applications from members of that sex shall be specifically invited." For universities and university colleges, section 6-3 (3) says that: "When an expert assessment is conducted, both sexes shall be represented among the experts." Equally, the question of gender equality must be considered when hiring. Section 44 h says "that the learning environment is well adapted for students of both sexes."
Origin date: 2005
The legislation on representation of both sexes in boards
Norwegian legislation secures gender balance in boards in public limited companies. The requirement of the gender representation law is that both sexes shall be represented on company boards by 40 per cent.
Origin date: 2011
The rights of parents of small children
This booklet explains the statutory rights of parents in relation to pregnancy, birth and adoption and when the children are small.
Origin date: 2007
The Father's Quota
As of 1 July 2014, the maternal and paternal quotas are ten weeks each of the total benefit period (49/59 weeks). If the father does not use the paternal quota, these weeks of leave usually expire. The original four-week paternity quota was introduced in 1993, and its purpose is to strengthen the father's relationship with the child. It was gradually expanded up to 14 weeks (for each parent), but reduced to 10 weeks after the change of government in 2013.
Origin date: 2014
The Norwegian Social Insurance Scheme
Brochure on the main general social insurance schemes in Norway, which are the National Insurance Scheme, the Family Allowance Scheme and the Scheme for Cash Benefit for Families with Small Children.
Origin date: 2014
The Working Environment Act
The new anti-discrimination regulations added to the Working Environment Act protect against labour market-related discrimination on the basis of gender and ethnic origin etc., as well as on the grounds of disability, sexual orientation, age and political conviction. The act also ensures employees the entitlement to leave of absence during pregnancy and childbirth. 
Origin date: 2005
The Cash Benefit Act
The cash benefit scheme provides a cash remuneration to parents who choose to care for their young children at home, instead of placing them in a kindergarten. The arrangement, since its introduction in 1998, has been a much and vehemently debated matter. The questions raised are largely in the area of gender equality, such as, if the measure may hinder progress in achieving gender equality, since it is largely women who make use of this offer.
Origin date: 1998
The Marriage Act
This Act regulates the marriage contract in Norway. Amendments in the marriage was enacted by the Norwegian Parliament (Stortinget) 17. June 2008. The amendment gives lesbians and gay men the right to enter marriage on the same basis as heterosexuals. The amendments came into force 1. January 2009.
Origin date: 2009
The Children Act
The Act regulates among another things conditions surrounding maternity and paternity.
Origin date: 1981
The Allodial Rights Act (Odelsloven)
The Act gives relatives preference with respect to farm property and gives the eldest child, regardless of gender (until 1974 the eldest boy) first choice in taking over the farm. But research shows that parents encourage boys much more frequently than girls to exercise their allodial rights and take over the farm. It is a challenge for agricultural policies to motivate girls to make conscious choices and utilize their allodial rights. The Act is mentioned in Norway’s second national report on the Follow-up to the United Nations’ Fourth World Conference on Women, Beijing 1995.
Origin date: 2013
Representation of both sexes on all official committees etc. (Section 21)
The Gender Equality Act requires that each gender is represented by at least 40 per cent of the members of all official committees, boards, councils, delegations, etc. of four members or more. Committees etc. elected by proportional representation are exempted.
Origin date: 2005
Rules of gender-representation in the Local Government Act of 2005
As a result of regulations issued pursuant to the Local Government Act, the provisions on representation of both sexes on official committees at municipal and county levels are now to be found in the Local Government Act. County chief administrative officers have been given the authority to enforce the provisions. According to § 37 and § 38 in the Act, gender should be a consideration when the body is established. 
Origin date: 1992
Penal provision regarding domestic abuse
On 20 December 2005, the Storting adopted a penal provision regarding domestic abuse (section 219 of the Penal Code). The provision came into force on 1 January 2006. In the new provision, it is the perpetrator's long-term terrorisation and abuse of the next-of-kin that constitutes the criminal aspect of the act. The penal provision will strengthen the legal status of women since women are the main victims of intimate partner violence.
Origin date: 2005
Conditions for a period of reflection and temporary residence in Norway
Victims of human trafficking who are not lawfully resident in Norway may be granted a period of reflection of at least 45 days. This means that any rejection and expulsion order may be suspended. The threshold for granting a period of reflection is intentionally low. It is sufficient that the person in question is presumed to be a victim of human trafficking and must be willing to accept help and information.
Origin date: 2004
Act Relating to the Municipal Crisis Centres Services

The Act relating to Municipal Crisis Centre Services (Crisis Centre Act) entered into force 1. January 2010. The purpose of the Crises Centre Act is to ensure the provision of a good, comprehensive crisis centre service for women, men and children who are subjected to domestic violence or threats of such violence. The municipality shall ensure the provision of a crisis centre service that may be used by persons who are subjected to domestic violence or threats of such violence, and who need counselling or safe, temporary accommodation. Individuals may contact the crisis centre service without a referral or an appointment.

Origin date: 2010
Ethical Guidelines for Government Employees prohibiting the Purchase and Acceptance of Sexual Services
In October 2002 the Norwegian government resolved to introduce ethical guidelines for civil servants prohibiting the purchase and acceptance of sexual services. The grounds for this resolution are the increasing problems posed by international prostitution and the trafficking of women and children for sexual purposes.
Origin date: 2002
The Abortion Act
Women’s right to choose an abortion is regulated by The Act Relating to the Termination of Pregnancy of 1975. When the act was introduced, the woman had to fill out an application, then a committee of doctors decided if an abortion could be granted or not. In 1978 women themselves were granted the right to decide whether to terminate their pregnancies or not. This right is limited in time, and is valid until the end of the twelfth week of the pregnancy.
Origin date: 1975
The Human Rights Act
The Human Rights Act relates to the strengthening of human rights in Norwegian law.
Origin date: 1999
The Marketing Control Act
The act states that "The marketer and the designer of the marketing shall ensure that the marketing does not conflict with the equality of the sexes and that it does not exploit the body of one of the sexes or convey an offensive or derogatory appraisal of women or men".
Origin date: 2009